Urology Surgery


Azoospermia is the medical term for the absence of sperm in the ejaculate. It can be "obstructive" when there is a blockage preventing sperm from entering the ejaculate, or "nonobstructive" when the testis produces less sperm. Non-obstructive pre-testicular azoospermia is caused by a decrease in the production of the hormones responsible for sperm formation.

  • Testicular azoospermia (non-obstructive) is caused by any abnormalities in the function or structure of the testicles.
  • Post-testicular azoospermia (obstructive) is caused by ejaculatory problems caused by an obstruction in the reproductive tract.

Symptoms of Azoospermia may include:

  • Low sex drive
  •  Erectile dysfunction
  • Lump, swelling, or discomfort around the testicles
  • Loss of hair on the face or body


A sperm analysis is the most straightforward method by which azoospermia can be diagnosed.

It's possible that you have azoospermia if the ejaculate contains no living sperm.

Some additional diagnostic tools include:

  • Scrotal ultrasound to see the scrotum and other parts of the reproductive tract  o Brain imaging to look for problems with the hypothalamus or pituitary gland  o Biopsies to look more closely at sperm production 
  •  Blood tests to look for hormone levels or genetic conditions
  •  Hormonal tests
  • A urinalysis after the ejaculation to see if the sperm are going backward into the bladder instead of out your penis (retrograde ejaculation).
  • Transrectal ultrasound to check your prostate and check for blockages of the tubes that carry semen (ejaculatory ducts and seminal vesicles).


  • Microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE) is a procedure that can be carried out by a skilled microsurgeon if men have non-obstructive azoospermia, a problem with sperm production. Additionally, it contributes to a reduction in the likelihood of testicular damage.
  •  Percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) is a procedure for people with obstructive azoospermia. A successful PESA collects a lot of sperm for future use and enough sperm to fertilize multiple eggs.
  •  Testicular sperm extraction (TESE) is a procedure used to retrieve sperm via a special testicular biopsy (tissue sample). The testicular biopsy is a simple outpatient procedure.

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